Making a Will FAQs

Making a Will FAQs

Making a will is a part of Estate Planning. In this article, we’ll outline the frequently asked questions about wills. Hope you enjoy!

What is the purpose of preparing a will?

A will is a legally binding document that identifies who should inherit a person’s property after they die. Recipients often include a spouse, children, grandchildren or a charitable organization. Many wills also contain a provision that names a guardian to care for minor children. A person that makes a will is called a testator.

What happens to my property and my children if I die without preparing a will?

If a person dies without a will or another legal distribution device, a state’s laws of intestate succession govern inheritance rights. Typically, a spouse (or in some states a domestic partner) and children are first in line to inherit a decedent’s property. If the deceased did not have a spouse or children, close relatives like parents, siblings, and grandparents will inherit the property. If the decedent has no relatives that qualify under a state’s intestate succession laws, the state receives the property.

If a parent of minor children dies without a will and the other parent is unable to provide care, the state determines who will become the guardian of the children and the property they inherit.

Do I need a lawyer to create a valid will?

No. State laws do not require the assistance of a lawyer when preparing a will. Because most wills only require instructions for the distribution of property and the naming of a guardian for minor children, most people can create a simple will by using software, ready-made forms or instructions from a book.

Can I make a handwritten will?

It depends on whether a state’s law recognizes a handwritten will. In about half of the states, a person may create a handwritten will, also called a “holographic” will. Unlike typed and computer-printed wills, witnesses are unnecessary for holographic wills. Some states require that the testator handwrite the entire holographic will, including the provisions, the date, and the signature. Other states are more lenient — the testator may use a fill-in-the-blank document if it contains handwritten portions, a signature, and a date.

Handwritten wills, however, may create complications. Many probate courts are hesitant to recognize the validity of these wills since they are difficult to verify.

How do I make a will valid?

When preparing a will, most states require the following elements:

  • The testator is at least 18 years old and of sound mind;
  • The inclusion of a statement that the document is the testator’s will;
  • The will is typed or computer-printed, except in the case of a handwritten will;
  • The will must have at least one provision that disposes of property or a provision that appoints a guardian for minor children;
  • The appointment of an executor; and
  • The testator and at least two witnesses signed the will.

The testator should adhere to the following guidelines when signing a will and selecting witnesses:

  • The testator must sign and date the end of a typed or computer-printed will in ink;
  • The signature should match the name that appears in the will;
  • The witnesses must see the testator sign the will;
  • The witnesses must also sign the will;
  • The witnesses should be at least 18 years old; and
  • The witnesses must not be beneficiaries in the will.

It is unnecessary to have a will notarized; however, doing so may simplify probate proceedings.

Can I name a guardian for my children in my will?

Yes. A will can name a “personal guardian” to care for minor children if both parents are deceased or if the surviving parent is unable to care for the children. The personal guardian will have legal guardianship over the minor children until they reach the age of 18.

Can I disinherit my spouse?

In community property states, a spouse is legally entitled to half of the property acquired or earned during the marriage. While a married person may leave their half of the community property to someone other than their spouse, they may not dispose of the spouse’s share of the community property.

In Utah, you really can’t completely disinherit you spouse, says local Utah Probate Lawyer. This is because the surviving spouse can make what is called an elective share and they will get at least the first $75,000 of the estate, plus half of the remaining estate, if they are a second or third spouse. Sometimes, they can get it all. You should call and talk to us if you truly want to disinherit your spouse.

In states where common law governs inheritance laws, a person may choose to disinherit a spouse through a will. However, common law states protect the surviving spouse from complete disinheritance by granting the right of the spouse to claim some portion of the deceased spouse’s property by going to court.

How do I revise my will?

A testator can change a will by preparing a new will or by adding an addition called a codicil. When changes are substantive, revoking a will and starting over may be easier. An express statement in the new will of the revocation of all prior wills legally revokes a will. Minor changes, such as the addition of a new provision or the removal of a beneficiary, are appropriate changes for a codicil.

Free Consultation with a Utah Will Lawyer

If you are here, you should get your free consultation, so call Ascent Law at (801) 676-5506. We want to help you with your will.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Ascent Law LLC

4.9 stars – based on 67 reviews


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Estate Planning Forms and Tools

Estate Planning Forms and Tools

Although no one likes to think about falling ill or passing away, it’s important to plan for it. Preparing a will allows you to make sure your money and property goes to the people you want them to go to. It’s also important to let your loved ones know your wishes if you ever unable to communicate your wishes. The process of estate planning is the way to plan for death or incapacitation. In this section you can find samples for various estate planning tools, such as a sample will, a sample health care power of attorney, and a sample living will. There is also a helpful estate planning checklist and a questionnaire to prepare you for meeting with an estate planning attorney.

Contents of a Basic Will

While there isn’t a standard, legally foolproof will, there are some basic elements that pretty much every will contains. A will should begin by making it clear that it’s meant to be a will and include the full name and residence of the testator (the person who is making the will). It’s also always a good idea to include a statement revoking any previous wills. The will should include to whom you would like to leave your money and property. If you would like to leave specific belongings or amounts of money to various people, you can list these wishes in the will. If, on the contrary, you simply want to leave everything to one person, you could make a general statement conveying that information. A will should also designate an executor to handle estate administration. It’s usually a good idea to include an alternative executor, in case the original executor can’t or won’t take the responsibility of being the executor. Finally, the testator must sign and date the will. While these are the basic elements of a will, it’s important to check the laws of your state to find out the requirements for drafting a will in your state.

Living Wills and Powers of Attorney

All of the states in the U.S. have laws concerning the ability of people to make decisions about their medical care before there is a need for treatment. A living will or advanced directive is a document that allows people to explain the type and duration of medical care they would like to receive if they are in a situation where they can’t communicate those wishes. Each state has its own laws regarding what can be included in a living will, which is why it’s important to check the laws in your jurisdiction or consult with an attorney when drafting a living will.

It’s worth mentioning that a living will and a health care power of attorney concern similar matters, but are very different. As previously mentioned, a living will explains the wishes of the person in the event that he or she can’t communicate the wishes him or herself. A health care power of an attorney can also have the same information as a living will, but it also designates a person to have the legal ability to make medical decision on a person’s behalf. The health care power of attorney is only valid in the event that the person who makes the document is unable to make medical decisions for him or herself.

Hiring an Estate Planning Attorney

Wills can be fairly easy to draft if a person doesn’t have very many assets. However, if you have a lot of assets or a complex situation, you should probably hire an estate planning lawyer to help you with your will. Regardless of the size of your estate, if you have questions or concerns about estate planning, you might want to consult with an attorney.

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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Life Insurance Policy to Lower Estate Tax

Before we get started, you may not need to worry about transferring your life insurance policy unless your estate will be subject to the federal estate tax. As of 2017, only estates worth over $5.49 million are subject to any estate taxes, although this can be changed by Congress at any time.

Life Insurance Policy to Lower Estate Tax

If your estate could be subject to the estate tax, then it’s important to understand that only assets owned in your name at your death count towards the value of your estate. According to estate law, if you transfer your life insurance policy, when you pass away the proceeds will not be in your name and would therefore not be included in the value of your estate at your death.

In general, there are two ways that you can accomplish this goal. First, you can transfer ownership of the policy to another adult, even the named beneficiary. Second, you can create an irrevocable life insurance trust and transfer the policy to the ownership of the trust. Be aware, however, that if you get life insurance through your job, you may not be able to transfer ownership rights.

Transferring Ownership to Other Adults

Although it can be easier, transferring ownership of your life insurance policy to another adult has its drawbacks. Perhaps most significant is that once you transfer ownership you can’t change your mind or go back and alter the policy.

For example, if you transfer your life insurance policy to your best friend, but then have a falling out, you can’t get your life insurance policy back. These transfers tend to work well in situations when you transfer a policy to an adult child with whom you have a good relationship.

The Three-Year Rule

Whenever transferring ownership of life insurance policies, the three-year rule applies. Under this rule created by the IRS, if the transfer takes place within the three years before death and is made without any consideration, then the proceeds from the policy are counted in the estate for tax purposes. So, if you’re considering transferring ownership of your life insurance policy, you should do so sooner rather than later.

Other Applicable IRS Rules

There are other rules and regulations that the IRS follows to determine the ownership of life insurance policies for estate tax purposes, as discussed below.

Retaining Ownership

If a deceased person kept any “incidents of ownership” over the policy after a transfer, then the policy is still considered to be owned by the deceased at death and counted for estate tax purposes. Incidents of ownership exist where, after a transfer, the deceased retains the power to:

  • Cancel, surrender or convert the policy;
  • Use the policy as collateral to borrow money;
  • Change the named beneficiary on the policy; or
  • Select the method of payment for the policy (installments or a lump sum).

Gift Tax Concerns

Under current laws (as of 2017), any gift of more than $14,000 is subject to a gift tax. Therefore, if you transfer a life insurance policy that has a present value of more than $14,000, any amount over that will be taxed when the policy is paid out.

However, even with this tax, it’s still worthwhile to transfer the policy instead of keeping it within your estate. If your estate will already be subject to the estate tax, then the full amount of your life insurance policy will be included in your estate and be subject to the estate tax at your death. However, if you transfer the policy before your death, only the amount that the policy was worth at transfer will be taxed.

How to Transfer Life Insurance Policies

Much like giving other pieces of property, you can give away your life insurance policies either by signing a document called an “assignment of rights” or a “transfer”, or by transferring the policy into a life insurance trust. Let’s take a look at both options.

Assigning/Transferring Rights

Most life insurance companies have their own forms to transfer ownership, which are best to use to avoid confusion. You can request an assignment or transfer form directly from your life insurance company, but you may also have to change the policy to indicate that the insured is no longer the owner.

After the transfer has been completed, the new owner is responsible for making all premium payments. If you continue to make the payments on the policy, the IRS may view this as evidence that you are still the true owner and will count any life insurance proceeds in your estate for tax purposes.

In general, there are two types of life insurance policies that can be transferred. The first is a prepaid, single-payment policy. The upside of transferring this type of policy is that there are no premiums that the new owner must continually pay. However, if the policy is worth more than $14,000 when it is transferred, a gift tax will be assessed on your death. The second type is a policy that asks for yearly premium payments. If the policy is worth less than $14,000 each year, then there will be no gift tax assessed upon your death because you are giving a gift of less than $14,000 each year.

Life Insurance Trusts

In order to transfer your policy to a trust for estate tax purposes, you must create an irrevocable life insurance trust and then place the policy inside of the trust. After you transfer the policy, you are no longer the policy owner and the policy benefits will not be included in your estate.

There are a few reasons why this may be better than transferring ownership to another person. First of all, there may not be anyone that you trust to take ownership and control of the policy. Or, even if there is someone you trust, you may not want that person to incur the responsibility of paying the policy premiums.

In addition, by placing the life insurance policy inside of a trust, you may continue to have some control over the policy remotely. For example, you can set up the trust in such a way that you guarantee that the policy will continue to have its premiums paid while you are still alive by simply putting those conditions inside of the documents that create the trust.

There are three requirements in order to create a valid life insurance trust, which include:

  1. The trust that you place your life insurance policy in must be irrevocable. This means that you will not have the right to revoke the trust. If you do, you are still considered the owner of the trust and it will be counted towards the value of your estate;
  2. You cannot be the trustee of the trust; and
  3. The trust must be created at least three years prior to your death (per the three-year rule).

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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10 Ways to Reduce Estate Taxes

The Federal estate tax can be reduced through various legitimate estate planning techniques. Following is a list of ten methods you should think about as ways to reduce your estate taxes.

10 Ways to Reduce Estate Taxes

  1. MARITAL TRANSFERS. Except where a spouse is a noncitizen, neither lifetime gifts nor bequests at death to one’s spouse are subject to estate taxes. However, the estate of the spouse will have to pay estate taxes on the spouse’s entire taxable estate, including the amount transferred to the spouse pursuant to the lifetime transfer, at the spouse’s death. Utah probate law allows these transfers and they are completely legal. Accordingly, this tool merely defers estate taxes; it does not entirely eliminate them.
  2. LIFETIME GIFTS TO CHILDREN AND GRANDCHILDREN. Each person can make annual gifts of $12,000 to any number of persons, typically children or grandchildren, without incurring a gift tax. If a husband and wife both engage in gifting, they can collectively give away $24,000 per year per recipient without incurring a gift tax. Over a period of several years the amount of money that can be transferred to a couple’s intended beneficiaries under this method is substantial, thereby reducing the size of the taxable estate.
  3. UNIFORM TRANSFER TO MINORS. This is a form of gifting used where the children are still minors. The gift is given to a custodian for the benefit of the child, and is distributed to the child when he/she reaches the age of majority. As with other gifts, the annual exclusion for lifetime gifts is used under this approach.
  4. AB TRUSTS AND QTIP TRUSTS. For 2006 through 2008, each person is currently scheduled to have the first $2 million of his/her estate pass to his/her heirs without estate taxes. This is referred to as the “unified credit” or “personal exemption.” An AB Trust is a trust designed to make sure the unified credit of each spouse is used to the full extent possible, while allowing the surviving spouse to have the use of the assets of the deceased spouse during the remainder of the surviving spouse’s lifetime. A QTIP Trust permits a spouse to transfer assets to his/her trust while still maintaining control over the ultimate disposition of those assets at the spouse’s death. QTIP Trusts are particularly popular in situations where a person is married for a second time but has children from a first marriage for whom he/she would like to reserve assets.
  5. IRREVOCABLE LIFE INSURANCE TRUSTS. By transferring small amounts of the estate (equal to the amount of a life insurance premium) to an irrevocable life insurance trust, a person can reduce the size of his or her taxable estate while creating a much larger asset (the life insurance proceeds) outside of the estate. The life insurance proceeds are generally not taxable.
  6. FAMILY LIMITED PARTNERSHIP. The family limited partnership provides a valuable estate planning tool to assist families in transferring ownership of family-owned closely held businesses to the next generation, and in protecting family assets from creditors. It also permits taxation of partnership income at the children’s lower tax rates. Additional attractive features of the family limited partnership are flexibility and revocability.
  7. PRIVATE ANNUITY. A private annuity is a sale of an asset to a younger generation in exchange for an unsecured promise to pay annual amounts to the seller for the seller’s lifetime. The sold asset is thus removed from the seller’s estate, although the amounts of the payments to the seller (unless spent) will be part of the seller’s estate.
  8. QUALIFIED FAMILY-OWNED BUSINESS INTEREST (QFOBI). The Internal Revenue Code permits a “qualified family-owned business interest” to be deducted from a gross estate. To qualify for the deduction, the following requirements must be met:
    • The decedent or family members must have owned and participated in the business for at least five of the last eight years
    • The business interest must make up at least 50 percent of the decedent’s adjusted gross estate
    • The decedent and his/her family must have owned 50 percent of the business
    • The decedent must have been a U.S. citizen or resident
    • The business must be located in the U.S.
  9. SPECIAL USE REAL ESTATE VALUATION. For federal estate tax purposes, real estate is usually valued at its “highest and best use” value. This can sometimes produce unfair results, such as where a family farm is located adjacent to more valuable commercial real estate. To address this unfairness, the Internal Revenue Code permits certain real estate to be valued at its “actual use” rather than its “highest and best use.”
  10. CHARITABLE TRANSFERS. Lifetime charitable transfers or gifts to charities upon death can reduce the size of the estate and thereby reduce estate taxes. Lifetime gifts provide the added benefit of an income tax deduction. Gifts can also be made in a manner that lets the donor retain the right to use the gifted asset or income therefrom until death.

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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Making a Trust

Maybe you’re thinking about how to better manage your property, or you want to make sure your family will be taken care of after you’re gone. If you’re having these thoughts, you might want to think about setting up a trust. A trust is basically a transfer of legal title from the owner (the grantor, trustor, or settlor) to an institution or person (a trustee). The trustee then administers the trust according to the trust terms for the benefit of a beneficiary. There are various factors to consider when setting up a trust. These factors include the size of the estate, the age, and marital status of the grantor.

Making a Trust

In this section you can find helpful tips and information on how to amend an existing trust, how to choose a trustee, and how a trust ends. You can also find articles giving guidance on how to put money and other assets – such as stocks and property – into a living trust, and instances in which setting up a trust may not be necessary.

What is a Trust?

A trust is an estate planning tool that can be used while you’re alive or for the benefit of your heirs. Each state has it’s own laws governing trusts but several states have adopted the Uniform Trust Code, making their laws very similar. There are several types of trusts. Living trusts, AB trusts, charitable trusts are all just a few types of trusts available to people. The type of trust you’ll want to set up will depend on what you would like to achieve with the trust.

Is a Living Trust Necessary?

Living trusts have many benefits but they also have some drawbacks. For example, a living trust involves routine maintenance and is harder to change than a will. In addition, it’s best to use an attorney when setting up a living trust, which can be expensive. These drawbacks can be outweighed by the benefits of a living trust depending on certain factors – such as age, marital status, and estate size.

A person who is under the age of 55 and healthy, probably doesn’t need a living trust because of it takes a decent amount of time and energy to maintain a trust. Marriage can also be a factor when deciding whether or not to set up a living trust. If married couples plan on leaving their property to each other, there are mechanisms in place for an easy transfer of assets after the death of one spouse. Finally, the size of the estate is also a factor in whether it’s a good idea to set up a living trust. Smaller estates generally don’t have a problem going through the probate process, making a living trust unnecessary.

Hiring a Lawyer

A trust can be fairly easy to set up, so a lawyer is not always necessary. However, a person with a large or complex estate or a unique situation may want to consult with an estate planning attorney for help with setting up a trust. Regardless of the size of estate, it might be a good idea to talk to an estate planning attorney if you have questions or concerns about setting up a trust.

Free Consultation with a Trust Lawyer in Utah

If you are here, you probably need a trust. If so, call Ascent Law for your free trust consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

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84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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What Happens if You Don’t Probate the Will?

When a person dies with a will, they typically name a person to serve as their executor. The executor is responsible for making sure that the deceased’s debts are paid and that any remaining money or property is distributed according to their wishes.

What Happens if You Don't Probate the Will

It’s not uncommon for wills to be written years before a person dies. Once death occurs, the executor should file the will in court to begin the probate process. But it’s not always that simple. Sometimes an executor dies first. Or an executor can decide they no longer want the job. So, what happens if you do not probate a will?

Utah Probate Law

In Utah, you have to probate a will within three (3) years of the person’s death.  You aren’t required to serve as the executor of a will, even if you made a promise to the deceased that you would. This doesn’t mean you can stick the deceased’s will in a drawer and forget about it. Most state require any person in possession of an original signed will to deposit it at the court of the county where the deceased resided. Filing deadlines vary by state, range from 30 days to 3 months.

Penalties to the Personal Representative

Failing to file a will within the time required by the state can have serious consequences. Although failure to file by itself is not a criminal violation, in most states this subjects the person to a lawsuit by someone who was financially hurt by the failure to file. For example, in Washington the law says that anyone who “willfully failed to file a will with the court” is liable to any injured party for the damages resulting from the violation.

Criminal liability could occur if the failure to file a will is coupled with an intent to conceal the existence of the will for financial gain. For example, your father decided to leave his entire estate to a favorite charity and left you nothing. You decide not to file his will. The laws of intestate succession allow you to inherit your father’s entire estate. In this instance, a failure to file the will would likely expose you to criminal liability.

Creditors’ Claims and Insolvent Estates in Probate

When people die, its common to have unpaid bills. Opening probate cuts short the amount of time a creditor has to claim against the estate. A creditor must file their claim within four months from the date an executor or personal representative is officially appointed. A creditor’s claim may be rejected by the executor if it is filed late. When probate is not opened, a creditor has one year to file suit against the estate.

It is common for a will not to get filed when the deceased’s estate is insolvent, meaning there are more bills that money. In general, relatives and friends have no legal obligation to do anything to pay the debts, to communicate with creditors, or open a probate. So, the simplest solution is to file the will and walk away from the problem by not opening probate.

Transferring Title to Property

Imagine if a friend passed away leaving a prized classic car in her will. Your friends had few other assets. Since the estate is small, it’s likely exempt from probate. Remember, probate is processes that transfer legal title of property from the estate of the person who has died to their beneficiaries.

Fortunately for you, most states have a streamline processes for transferring title in small estates. The process is generally referred to as “transfer by affidavit” and may be used to collect personal property of the deceased without probate. State law will set the maximum fair market value of the deceased’s entire estate that can pass in this manner. You will still likely need to produce the will to show your legal right to inherit the car.

File a Will That Doesn’t Require Probate

Probate isn’t always necessary. People frequently don’t bother to file a will if there is no apparent need to open probate because the person left nothing of the value or because all items of value were put into a trust, a joint account or some other form designed to avoid probate.

Remember, there is a difference between filing a will and opening probate. Even probate seems unnecessary, the will must be filed. It’s not that unusual to discover property belonging to the deceased years after their death. And some states, such as Nevada, allow probate to be opened decades after a person has passed. In such an instance, the will would allow the newly discovered assets to be distributed.

Free Consultation with a Utah Probate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have a probate or estate matter that you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

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8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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Payable on Death Beneficiary for Accounts

Planning your estate doesn’t have to be expensive or complicated. You can transform your bank accounts into an estate planning tool by designating a beneficiary for your checking, savings and other deposit accounts. Simply ask your banker for their payable on death (POD) beneficiary form.

Payable on Death Beneficiary for Accounts

POD accounts function like an informal trust. Some banks even refer to these accounts a Totten or tentative trusts. After your death, the account beneficiary avoids probate and can claim the money directly from your bank. During your lifetime, the beneficiaries have no rights to the account. You can spend the money, close the account or change your beneficiaries. The account will function just as it did before you listed a beneficiary.

Who Can be Your Beneficiary

The beneficiary rules for POD accounts are very flexible. You can choose to have one beneficiary for several accounts or multiple beneficiaries for one account. Nonprofit organizations can serve as your beneficiary. Just be certain they are recognized as a charitable entity by the Internal Revenue Service. Depending on the laws of your state, you may be able to designate an alternate beneficiary, in case your first named beneficiary dies before you. If there are no living beneficiaries at the time of your death, the account will pass through probate.

What Accounts Can Have a Beneficiary

You can name a POD beneficiary for your checking and savings accounts, money markets, CDs and U.S. Savings Bonds. But you will probably need to complete a beneficiary registration form for each account. Joint accounts, such as held by a married couple, can also be transferred into POD account. The beneficiary will only receive rights to the assets after the last account owner dies.

Stocks and other securities can be transferred by setting up transfer on death (TOD) registration on the account. Most states have adopted the Uniform TOD Security Registration Act, but brokerage firms can still choose not to offer TOD registration.

How Do You Claim A POD Account?

Claiming a POD account is a straightforward process. The beneficiary goes to the bank or credit union holding the account and presents a copy of your death certificate. They will also need to show valid identification and fill out transfer forms. Some states have a short waiting period, but otherwise the beneficiary can claim the funds immediately.

TOD beneficiaries must take steps to re-register the securities in their names. This typically involves sending a copy of the death certificate and an application for re-registration to the transfer agent

Be aware, POD accounts are subject to outside claims. So you can’t use a POD account to avoid paying your debts or to disinherit a spouse. You must leave enough money in your estate to tie-up your affairs. Plus if you live in a community property state, your spouse has a right to half of your assets, including those only listed in your name.

Tax Issues with POD Accounts

After you die, estate or income taxes may be left owing. For example, if you are working at the time of your death, your estate administrator will file your last tax return. It is important that your will or living trust state if the POD account beneficiary is required to use funds to cover any tax liability.

Your beneficiary may also be subject to an inheritance tax depending on the laws of your state, and you family relationship. In most states, surviving spouses are exempt from inheritance tax. But unrelated individuals are frequently taxed on an inheritance.

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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AB Trusts

AB Trusts

Normally, when one spouse dies passing on his/her assets in a last will and testament, the estate will be taxed heavily before the beneficiaries receive it. To avoid this steep estate tax, spouses can set up an AB trust, where each spouse leaves their property to an irrevocable trust. When it comes to estate planning, an AB trust is a trust created by married couples to maximize their federal estate tax exemptions. A lot of people believe that AB trusts only benefit those with large estates. The truth is anyone who may owe estate tax can benefit from an AB trust.

 How the AB Trust System Works

When the first spouse dies, the beneficiaries (usually the couple’s children) named in the trust receive that spouse’s property. However, this irrevocable trust is to be used for the benefit of the surviving spouse, who does not technically own the property. There is a crucial condition that the property can be used by the surviving spouse and that the surviving spouse may even spend principal in certain instances. Once the surviving spouse dies, all the property rights and benefits of the irrevocable trust pass to the surviving beneficiaries of the trust. Because the surviving spouse does not own the property, it is not subject to estate tax. Setting up an AB trust this way keeps the portion of the surviving spouse’s estate that is taxable half of what it would be without an AB trust.

Surviving Spouse’s Rights Over the Assets

As mentioned, the AB trust is left with the condition that it is to benefit the surviving spouse. This gives the surviving spouse some power over the assets, depending on the provisions of the trust. This is a part of probate law that some people struggle with.

The surviving spouse’s rights and benefits include receiving all income from the trust property, including:

  • Interest
  • Using the property
  • Spending to benefit his or her health, support and maintenance, standard of living, and education

The surviving spouse maintains these rights until her death, at which time all of the property is distributed to the beneficiaries of the original trust, and all of the surviving spouse’s property is distributed to his or her beneficiaries.

Disadvantages of an AB trust

The AB trust is irrevocable. Once one spouse dies, there cannot be any changes made to the trust. This can create some issues and has even caused friction between the surviving spouse and the named beneficiaries of the trust. As mentioned, the surviving spouse’s rights to use the property are limited. Where at one time this used to be the property he or she shared with his or her spouse, to do with as they pleased, this property is now restricted to certain uses and rights.

Settling and distributing property in an AB trust can be expensive and often requires a lawyer and accountant. Furthermore, these tax laws are always changing. You’ll need to keep current, or hire a professional to keep you current, on these changes and what they mean for you and your trust. These changes may even encourage you to change or even revoke your trust.

There is a lot of paperwork and bookkeeping required in an AB trust. The surviving spouse needs a tax ID number for the irrevocable trust and must file annual income tax returns on the trust. He or she must also keep records of all the AB trust property.

Is an AB trust is Right for You?

An AB trust is best suited for those married couples who are both over the age of 60 and do not have children from previous marriages. Often times when there are children from previous marriages conflicts arise between the surviving spouse and the deceased spouse’s children about who should share in the assets. If you think an AB trust might be for you or you have more questions, you should consult an attorney who can advise you based on your specific circumstances and your specific needs.

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Planning Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Ascent Law LLC

4.9 stars – based on 67 reviews


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Medicaid and Trusts

For the person who is not a multi-millionaire, the greatest threat to the estate is not probate. It is not estate taxes. The greatest threat is nursing home costs. It is for this reason that estate planning is essential to protect your assets from Medicaid liens should you ever require long term care. With careful Medicaid planning, you may be able to preserve some of your estate for your children or other heirs while meeting the Medicaid asset limits.

Medicaid and Trusts

Some individuals believe that transferring assets is a viable method of protecting ones assets. The problem with transferring assets is that you have given them away. You no longer control them, and even a trusted child or other relative may lose them. A safer approach is to put them in a trust.

A trust is a legal entity under which one person — the “trustee” — holds legal title to property for the benefit of others — the “beneficiaries.” The trustee must follow the rules provided in the trust instrument. Whether trust assets are counted against Medicaid’s resource limits depends on the terms of the trust and who created it.

A trust is either revocable, meaning it can be changed or ended by the trustor at anytime, or irrevocable, which is typically permanent and unalterable.

Revocable Trust

A “revocable” trust is one that may be changed or rescinded by the person who created it. Medicaid considers the principal of such trusts (that is, the funds that make up the trust) to be assets that are countable in determining Medicaid eligibility. Thus, revocable trusts are of no use in Medicaid planning.

Irrevocable Trust

An “irrevocable” trust is one that cannot be changed after it has been created. In most cases, this type of trust is drafted so that the income is payable to you (the person establishing the trust, called the “grantor”) for life, and the principal cannot be applied to benefit your or your spouse. At your death the principal is paid to your heirs.

This way, the funds in the trust are protected and you can use the income for your living expenses. For Medicaid purposes, the principal in such trusts is not counted as a resource, provided the trustee cannot pay it to you or your spouse for either of your benefits. However, if you do move to a nursing home, the trust income will have to go to the nursing home.

Testamentary trusts

Testamentary trusts are trusts created under a will. The Medicaid rules provide a special “safe harbor” for testamentary trusts created by a deceased spouse for the benefit of a surviving spouse. The assets of these trusts are treated as available to the Medicaid applicant only to the extent that the trustee has an obligation to pay for the applicant’s support. If payments are solely at the trustee’s discretion, they are considered unavailable.

Remember, Medicaid is a joint federal-state program. While there are some federal guidelines, states have some of their own qualification guidelines, so it is important to check the laws in your state and to consult a qualified attorney when setting up the trust.

Free Consultation with a Utah Estate Lawyer

If you are here, you probably have an estate issue you need help with, call Ascent Law for your free estate law consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Ascent Law LLC

4.9 stars – based on 67 reviews


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What is a Special Needs Trust?

what is a special needs trust

Thе Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt (аlѕо knоwn as a Suррlеmеntаl Needs Truѕt) оr “SNT” is a a part of Trust Law and it is special kind оf trust that allows assets tо be hеld fоr thе bеnеfit of a diѕаblеd or ѕресiаl needs сhild оr adult, withоut making the bеnеfiсiаrу (the special needs child) inеligiblе for government bеnеfitѕ.

Parents оf children with ѕресiаl nееdѕ fасе unique and оftеn troubling obstacles when attempting to finаnсiаllу plan fоr the future. Mоѕt often, thеѕе раrеntѕ ѕubѕtаntiаllу rеlу оn ѕuррlеmеntаl security inсоmе (SSI) bеnеfitѕ through thе Social Sесuritу Administration, whiсh helps tо pay fоr treatments аnd necessary ѕресiаl needs рrоgrаmѕ.

Thе dilеmmа fасеd whеn planning fоr the child’s financial futurе is thаt an outright bеԛuеаth tо a сhild will mоѕt likеlу diѕԛuаlifу thеm fоr рubliс аѕѕiѕtаnсе, аnd the child is аlѕо mоѕt likеlу unаblе tо саrе for themselves. Pаrеntѕ аrе often fасеd with the vеrу rеаl possibility оf having to disinherit a child in оrdеr tо рrеѕеrvе the сhild’ѕ right tо rесеivе SSI bеnеfitѕ and оthеr рubliс assistance.

The mаin gоаl оf аn еffесtivе finаnсiаl рlаn fоr a special needs сhild is to рrоvidе fundѕ fоr living without limiting thе сhild’ѕ access tо аvаilаblе bеnеfitѕ. A Special Nееdѕ Truѕt hеlрѕ раrеntѕ ассоmрliѕh thiѕ gоаl.

The dеvеlорmеnt оf thе Sресiаl Needs Truѕt arose bесаuѕе оf the nееd fоr a vеhiсlе that wоuld еnаblе раrеntѕ tо dеаl with various governmental rеѕtriсtiоnѕ on hоw it disburses bеnеfitѕ. Thiѕ planning dеviсе is gеnеrаllу bаѕеd largely оn Sосiаl Sесuritу Adminiѕtrаtiоn guidеlinеѕ which permit payment for сеrtаin ѕеrviсеѕ withоut nеgаtivеlу аffесting SSI benefits оr еligibilitу ѕtаtuѕ. To асhiеvе itѕ gоаl in рrеѕеrving рubliс аѕѕiѕtаnсе еligibilitу, the Special Nееdѕ Trust must bе carefully ѕtruсturеd аѕ a fund whiсh ѕuррlеmеntѕ, without supplanting, SSI рrоviѕiоnѕ for thе сhild’ѕ needs in areas such аѕ hоuѕing, fооd аnd clothing.

As with mоѕt truѕtѕ, a Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt requires four еѕѕеntiаl elements:

  • A соrрuѕ (thе mоnеу оr аѕѕеtѕ рlасеd in thе truѕt).
  • A bеnеfiсiаrу (thе special nееdѕ сhild).
  • A trustee who distributes thе funds and hаѕ diѕсrеtiоn оvеr ѕuсh diѕburѕеmеntѕ.
  • A рurроѕе, often set out in thе truѕt dосumеnt, whiсh guides hоw the fundѕ will bе distributed.

An аttоrnеу experienced in truѕt сrеаtiоn and mаintеnаnсе ѕhоuld bе used in order to еnѕurе that thе truѕt dосumеnt ассurаtеlу and еffесtivеlу ассоmрliѕhеѕ its gоаl.

Thе trust document muѕt ассurаtеlу describe thе relationship bеtwееn thе соrрuѕ, thе truѕtее and the beneficiary. In order to maintain itѕ discretionary nаturе, the bеnеfiсiаrу muѕt be kерt frоm реrѕоnаllу rесеiving thе bоdу оf thе trust fоr аnу рurроѕе оthеr that set out in thе dосumеnt itѕеlf. The trustee’s role iѕ the most important аѕресt of thе Sресiаl Needs Truѕt. Whеn сhооѕing a trustee, thе ѕеttlоrѕ (раrеntѕ) оf the trust must еlесt a реrѕоn оf truѕtwоrthу сhаrасtеr who will fulfill his оr hеr fiduciary dutiеѕ tо thе beneficiary. The trustee ѕhоuld gеnеrаllу bе рrоhibitеd frоm giving cash tо thе bеnеfiсiаrу, аѕ doing so could cause thе саѕh tо bе соnѕidеrеd income, аffесting the bеnеfiсiаrу’ѕ еligibilitу fоr SSI bеnеfitѕ. The mоѕt imроrtаnt еlеmеnt оf a Special Needs Trust iѕ thе truѕtее’ѕ аbѕоlutе diѕсrеtiоn in dеtеrmining thе timing аnd аmоunt of diѕtributiоnѕ. Thе diѕсrеtiоnаrу ѕtаtuѕ оf the trust iѕ nесеѕѕаrу in оrdеr to kеер the bеnеfiсiаrу еligiblе fоr рubliс bеnеfitѕ. Whilе thеrе iѕ no fоrmаl mесhаniѕm tо еnѕurе thаt truѕtееѕ uрhоld their dutу to рrоvidе fоr thе сhild, if it iѕ fоund that the truѕtее failed tо inquire as to thе wеlfаrе оf the beneficiary thеу mау bе hеld реrѕоnаllу liable fоr thеir fаilurе tо inԛuirе into thе bеnеfiсiаriеѕ ѕtаtuѕ.

Withоut аbѕоlutе truѕtее diѕсrеtiоn in mаking diѕtributiоnѕ, thе trust соrрuѕ could bе deemed income оf thе child, diѕԛuаlifуing thеm from SSI or Medicaid bеnеfitѕ. It iѕ important tо kеер in mind that thе purpose оf thе trust muѕt bе to аdd tо аnd nоt rерlасе еxiѕting gоvеrnmеntаl bеnеfitѕ. Thе truѕt dосumеnt must еxрliсitlу inѕtruсt the truѕtее оnlу tо make diѕtributiоnѕ fоr itеmѕ whiсh are nоt covered bу gоvеrnmеnt bеnеfit рrоgrаmѕ.

A conundrum for mаnу Amеriсаnѕ, еѕресiаllу with the growing аging population, is their еѕtаtе plan. Yet, fаmiliеѕ thаt hаvе a ѕресiаl nееdѕ mеmbеr hаvе thеir оwn рuzzlе to manage, whiсh invоlvеѕ planning thаt iѕ unlike оthеrѕ’. Particularly, a special needs lоvеd one роѕеѕ a unique сhаllеngе of “hоw tо provide” in thе еvеnt no one iѕ left, usually сlоѕе fаmilу, to саrе fоr ѕаid individuаl.

The Prоblеm: Tурiсаllу, ѕресiаl nееdѕ Americans are rесеiving gоvеrnmеnt еntitlеmеnt program bеnеfitѕ ѕuсh as SSI or SSDI. One оf the iѕѕuеѕ family-caregivers face iѕ lеаving аѕѕеtѕ or a “finаnсiаl ѕuрроrt ѕtruсturе” for thеir loved оnе whilе аt thе same timе аvоiding lоѕѕ, оr inеligibilitу, of thе entitlement. Lifе insurance iѕ оnе оf thе common funding mechanisms fоr thе саrе-рlаn. Fоr thоѕе unaware, however, SSI, Medicaid, аnd SSDI hаvе ѕtriсt guidеlinеѕ ѕurrоunding recipients’ аѕѕеtѕ аnd inсоmе, еvеn if it is inherited – in light of this, such рrоgrаmѕ fаll grоѕѕlу short of being able to fund mаnу оf the “quality оf life” еxреnditurеѕ the ѕресiаl needs реrѕоn dеѕеrvеѕ: ѕimрlе luxuries likе tеlеviѕiоnѕ, cell рhоnеѕ, vасаtiоnѕ, оr health еxреnѕеѕ such as dentist саrе.

Thе Solution: Thе ѕресiаl nееdѕ person nееd nоt rеѕign thе nоtiоn оf hаving fundѕ ѕеt аѕidе fоr their “quality of lifе.” But, thеir саrеgivеrѕ planning should not bе ‘рigеоnhоlеd’ into the “рrоtоtурiсаl еѕtаtе рlаn” thаt may аррlу tо many of thоѕе withоut a ѕресiаl needs fаmilу mеmbеr; thiѕ is not to ѕuggеѕt thеrе iѕ a “оnе-ѕizе-fitѕ-аll” рlаn fоr anyone, аѕ еасh fаmilу invаriаblу has itѕ оwn ѕресifiс needs and gоаlѕ. Nеvеrthеlеѕѕ, planning considerations for thоѕе with special nееdѕ tаkеѕ on a dimеnѕiоn оf itѕ own rеԛuiring аttеntiоn tо:

  • Thе gоаlѕ fоr care fоllоwing thе point in time when саrе iѕ not роѕѕiblе аѕ with incapacity оr death.
  • Designing a plan that fitѕ within thе nаrrоw rеgulаtiоnѕ аnd guidеlinеѕ thаt the fеdеrаl аnd ѕtаtе entitlement рrоgrаmѕ mаndаtе rеgаrding a rесiрiеnt’ѕ finаnсеѕ.

Fоrtunаtеlу, рrоgrаmѕ ѕuсh аѕ SSI аnd Mеdiсаid соntеmрlаtе thе limits on the funds they deliver therefore recognizing ѕресiаl nееdѕ individuаlѕ’ right tо “ԛuаlitу of lifе” аѕ wеll as thеir families’ dеѕirе to rеѕеrvе mоnеу tо thiѕ еnd. Special needs planning, соnѕеԛuеntlу, involves bаlаnсing the needs of thе individuаl and thе family with the gоvеrnmеnt’ѕ еntitlеmеnt policies. Thеrеfоrе, a will and/or life insurance policy iѕ ѕimрlу nоt еnоugh.

A planning inѕtrumеnt referred to as either a Special Needs Truѕt (SNT), or Suррlеmеnt Trust, iѕ nееdеd. Suсh a truѕt саn bе created uѕing a will bу wау оf a testamentary (uроn death) SNT оr the truѕt саn be made independently, which is оftеn thе preferred mеthоd bесаuѕе оf рrоbаtе. Thе tеѕtаmеntаrу SNT would ѕtill need to gо thrоugh the рrоbаtе process саuѕing a delay, whеrеаѕ thе ѕtаnd-аlоnе SNT avoids рrоbаtе аltоgеthеr. In еithеr event, thе SNT and/or Supplemental Truѕt circumvents thе income аnd аѕѕеt restrictions bу mаintаining оwnеrѕhiр and control оvеr the fundѕ аnd аѕѕеtѕ. A “mаintеnаnсе provision” thеrеin gives thе truѕtее аuthоritу to mаkе оnlу thоѕе diѕtributiоnѕ thаt do not viоlаtе “ԛuаlitу оf lifе” еxреnditurеѕ rесоgnizеd as permissible by Fеdеrаl and/or State administrative agencies. Thе upshot fоr thе ѕресiаl nееdѕ fаmilу mеmbеrѕ iѕ a rеѕеrvе оf fundѕ for a bеttеr lifе whilе keeping imроrtаnt entitlement bеnеfitѕ.

In thе absence of a Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt if thе diѕаblеd individual inhеritѕ mоnеу оr рrореrtу, governmental bеnеfitѕ саn be reduced or eliminated аltоgеthеr аѕ the individual hаѕ more than thе permissible аmоunt to ԛuаlifу for thе bеnеfitѕ.

Whаt саn a Special Needs Trust dо?

The family саn рut money, property, аnd оthеr аѕѕеtѕ into thе Trust inѕtеаd of leaving it tо the inсарасitаtеd individual thеmѕеlvеѕ. Thе inсарасitаtеd individuаl iѕ dеѕignаtеd as a bеnеfiсiаrу оf the Truѕt and a Truѕtее iѕ арроintеd tо ѕреnd thе money in thе Trust on thе behalf оf your lоvеd оnе. Thе fundѕ in the Truѕt саn be uѕеd tо cover соѕtѕ above and bеуоnd thе governmental bеnеfitѕ уоur loved one is receiving such as vacation, travel еxреnѕеѕ, rесrеаtiоnаl асtivitiеѕ, mеdiсаl аnd dеntаl еxреnѕеѕ thаt would have tо bе paid оut of росkеt, etc.

A Firѕt Pаrtу Suррlеmеntаl Needs Truѕt

A Firѕt Party Suррlеmеntаl Nееdѕ Trust is аn Irrеvосаblе Truѕt whiсh can bе set uр for a disabled person undеr thе аgе of 65 uѕing the assets оf the diѕаblеd individuаl. Thiѕ iѕ most соmmоnlу uѕеd when thе diѕаblеd individuаl mау receive a inheritance оr ѕеttlеmеnt which wоuld bring their countable assets аbоvе the $2,000 limit.

If thе funds аrе not placed in a Firѕt Pаrtу Sресiаl Needs Trust thеn gоvеrnmеntаl bеnеfitѕ such аѕ Mеdiсаid will bе ѕtорреd and thе disabled individual will bе rеԛuirеd tо рау thеir оwn mеdiсаl bills frоm thе аѕѕеtѕ whiсh thеу received until thеу аrе ѕреnt dоwn to thе $14,400.00 соuntаblе asset limit.

The fundѕ in thiѕ Trust muѕt bе ѕреnt fоr the bеnеfit of the disabled individuаl аnd thе lаnguаgе of thе Truѕt muѕt inсludе provisions whiсh аllоw the ѕtаtе Mеdiсаid аgеnсу tо rесоvеr thе rеmаining funds in thе Trust uр tо the аmоunt thаt it spent on the diѕаblеd individuаl.

Third Pаrtу Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt

A Third Pаrtу Sресiаl Needs Trust iѕ created bу fаmilу mеmbеrѕ or friends of thе diѕаblеd individuаl. Thе diѕаblеd individuаl can bе of аnу аgе аnd will bе a beneficiary оf thе Trust. A Third Party Special Nееdѕ Trust is аn idеаl estate рlаnning tооl fоr families whо want tо lеаvе behind an inheritance fоr their lоvеd оnе withоut аffесting thеir right tо rесеivе Mеdiсаid аnd оthеr benefits.

A Third Pаrtу Special Nееdѕ Truѕt саn оutlinе how thе diѕаblеd bеnеfiсiаrу is tо bе cared fоr аftеr thе раrеntѕ or other fаmilу members taking care оf thе diѕаblеd hаvе раѕѕеd аwау аnd also hоw thе аѕѕеtѕ in the Trust are tо bе distributed and ѕреnt. Thе Third Pаrtу Sресiаl Needs Truѕt can also be uѕеd during the lifetime оf thе bеnеfiсiаrу bу hаving thе assets in thе Trust pay fоr expenses nоt paid bу Mеdiсаid оr оthеr gоvеrnmеntаl benefits. Unlike a Firѕt Party Sресiаl Needs Trust a Third Pаrtу Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt does not hаvе a Mеdiсаid pay bасk requirement.

A Third Pаrtу Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt can be Tеѕtаmеntаrу whiсh means it is раrt оf thе Will оr it саn bе a Rеvосаblе Trust with аn Irrеvосаbilitу рrоviѕiоn or it can be сrеаtеd аѕ an Irrеvосаblе Truѕt.

A Pооlеd Truѕt

A Pооlеd Sресiаl Needs Truѕt is an аttrасtivе орtiоn fоr a diѕаblеd individual whо mау not hаvе someone they consider tо be a ѕuitаblе Trustee. Thiѕ Truѕt саn bе сrеаtеd bу a family mеmbеr, friеnd, аnd also thе disabled individuаl thеmѕеlvеѕ uѕing thеir оwn аѕѕеtѕ. The Pooled Special Nееdѕ Trust is managed bу a nоn-рrоfit оrgаnizаtiоn. At the timе the disabled individuаl passes away thе remaining funds in the Trust either go bасk tо the nоn-рrоfit оrgаnizаtiоn оr tо thе ѕtаtе Mеdiсаid agency.

It iѕ nоt nесеѕѕаrу that a Sресiаl Nееdѕ Truѕt bе сrеаtеd with funds sufficient to рrоvidе fоr саrе of thе сhild оvеr thеir entire lifеtimе, but at ѕоmе роint оvеr the соurѕе of the truѕt thiѕ gоаl ѕhоuld bе асhiеvеd. An experienced аttоrnеу with finаnсiаl аnd еѕtаtе рlаnning еxреrtiѕе саn help design thе means tо achieve thiѕ goal. With the аѕѕiѕtаnсе оf an experienced attorney, there are several steps that раrеntѕ саn take to work tоwаrd adequate funding. Sоmе potential ѕtrаtеgiеѕ inсludе:

  • Uѕing the Special Nееdѕ Trust as a роur-оvеr trust, with thе truѕt to receive a роrtiоn of thе раrеntѕ’ еѕtаtе оn their dеаth.
  • Directing investment income intо thе truѕt.
  • Placing rеаl рrореrtу intо thе truѕt аѕ раrt оf itѕ corpus.
  • Enсоurаging fаmilу giftѕ tо thе truѕt, rather thаn dirесtlу to thе сhild.

Thеrе аrе mаnу орtiоnѕ available tо the раrеntѕ оf a ѕресiаl nееdѕ сhild in оrdеr tо ensure thаt the child iѕ able tо асhiеvе adequate assistance оvеr thе соurѕе оf his or her life. An еxреriеnсеd еѕtаtе planner саn аdviѕе any concerned parent оf еvеrу орtiоn available аnd can hеlр to асhiеvе the mоѕt optimal аnd efficient vеhiсlе for рrоviding assistance tо thе child over thе соurѕе оf his оr her lifеtimе.

Supplemental Needs Trust Lawyer

If you have gotten this far you know that you need to speak with an attorney who drafts special needs trusts, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you!

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Ascent Law LLC

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