Is Section 42 Applicable To Private Companies?

Is Section 42 Applicable To Private Companies

A private placement is a sale of stock shares or bonds to pre-selected investors and institutions rather than on the open market. It is an alternative to an initial public offering (IPO) for a company seeking to raise capital for expansion. Investors invited to participate in private placement programs include wealthy individual investors, banks and other financial institutions, mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds. Private placement is a cost effective way of raising capital without going public. A private placement is a method for both public and private companies to raise capital through the private sale of corporate debt or equity securities, to a limited number of qualified investors (aka lenders); it is an alternative to traditional capital sources, such as bank debt, or issuing securities on the public bond market.

Who can issue private placement?

A public company or private company can issue shares on private placement basis.

Maximum number of person to whom private placement can be made
Private placement can be made to maximum 50 persons or higher number prescribed in a financial year, excluding (a) Qualified Institutional Buyer (QIB)(b) employees under stock option scheme under section 62(1)(b) of Companies Act, 2013.

Maximum limit for making offer for Private placement

Offer or invitation can be made to not more than two hundred persons in the aggregate in a financial year, excluding offer to QIB and Employees stock option. This restriction would be reckoned individually for each kind of security that is equity share, preference share or debenture [i.e. 200 for equity shares, 200 for preference shares and 200 for debentures]. However, unless allotment with respect to one kind of security is completed, another kind of security shall not be issued. For example, if equity shares are issued first, preference shares or debentures cannot be issued unless allotment of equity shares is completed. This restriction does not apply to issues by NBFC registered with RBI and housing finance companies registered with NHB (National Housing Bank). If RBI or NHB has not specified similar regulation, the provision of Companies Act shall apply.

What is the time limit for making allotment?

Allotment must be made within 60 days. If not made within 60 days, amount should be refunded within 15 days. Otherwise, interest @ 12% will be payable. The money shall be kept in a separate bank account, either for allotment or for repayment. The offer shall be made to specific persons by name and complete information and record of such offer shall be filed with ROC within 30 days of circulation of private placement offer. No advertisement through media, marketing or distribution channels or agents shall be made of such offer. Return of allotment with complete details of security holders shall be filed with Registrar.

Payment only from bank account of person making application

The payment for subscription to securities shall be made from the bank account of the person subscribing to such securities only. The company shall keep the record of the Bank account from where such payments for subscriptions have been received. Monies payable on subscription to securities to be held by joint holders shall be paid from the bank account of the person whose name appears first in the application – Rule 14(2)(d) of Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014.

Record of private placement

The company shall maintain a complete record of private placement offers in Form PAS.5. A copy of such record along with the private placement offer letter in Form PAS.4 shall be filed with the Registrar with prescribed fees, within 30 days from date of the private placement offer letter. If the company is listed, copy of such record shall also be submitted to SEBI, within 30 days from date of the private placement offer letter – Rule 14(3) of Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014.

Return of allotment

A return of allotment of securities under section 42 (private placement) shall be filed with the Registrar within 30 of allotment in Form PAS.3 with fee. The return should be filed along with a complete list of all security holders containing –

• the full name, address, Permanent Account Number and E-mail ID of such security holder
• the class of security held
• the date of allotment of security
• the number of securities held, nominal value and amount paid on such securities; and particulars of consideration received if the securities were issued for consideration other than cash.

Pre-certification of form

The PAS.3 form filed by company (other than OPC and small company) shall be pre-certified by practicing CA, CMA or CS. (form filed by OPC or small company is not required to be certified by practicing CA, CMA or CS).

Requirements for Private Company for Private Placement In Utah

As per Section 23 of the Companies Act, 2013 a private company may issue shares by:
• An offer of private placement can be made to a maximum of 200 individuals in a single financial year.
• A private placement letter is sent to applicants (coded with serial numbers) electronically or in writing.
• In the case of issue of shares, a special resolution needs to be passed by the existing shareholders. (Form MGT 14)
• The value of the shares should be certified by a Chartered Accountant (CA) with at least 10 years of experience.
• The payment for securities should be made directly from the bank account for the individual subscribing.
• Securities should be allocated within 60 days of receipt of the application money. If securities are not allocated (because of oversubscription or inability to raise enough capital), then the application money should be refunded within 15 days post the expiry of 60 days. If a company still fails to do so, then the company is liable to pay a 12% interest on the application amount.
The company must file the following with the Registrar of Companies:
• PAS-3 (The return of security allotment within 30 days of allotment)
• PAS-4 (Private placement offer letter)
• PAS-5 (Complete record of private placement)

Ways Private Companies can Raise Capital

Running a business requires a great deal of capital. Capital can take different forms, from human and labour capital to economic capital. But when most of us hear the term financial capital, the first thing that comes to mind is usually money. While it can mean different things, it isn’t necessarily untrue. Financial capital is represented by assets, securities, and yes, cash. Having access to cash can mean the difference between companies expanding or staying behind and being left in the lurch. There are two types of capital that a company can use to fund operations: Debt and equity. Prudent corporate finance practice involves determining the mix of debt and equity that is most cost-effective.

Debt Capital

Debt capital is also referred to as debt financing. Funding by means of debt capital happens when a company borrows money and agrees to pay it back to the lender at a later date. The most common types of debt capital company use are loans and bonds—the two most common ways larger companies use to fuel their expansion plans or to fund new projects. Smaller businesses may even use credit cards to raise their own capital. A company looking to raise capital through debt may need to approach a bank for a loan, where the bank becomes the lender and the company becomes the debtor. In exchange for the loan, the bank charges interest, which the company will note, along with the loan, on its balance sheet. The other option is to issue corporate bonds. These bonds are sold to investors—also known as bondholders or lenders—and mature after a certain date.

Before reaching maturity, the company is responsible for issuing interest payments on the bond to investors. Because they generally come with a high amount of risk—the chances of default are higher than bonds issued by the government—they pay a much higher yield. The money raised from bond issuance can be used by the company for its expansion plans. While this is a great way to raise much-needed money, debt capital does come with a downside. This expense, incurred just for the privilege of accessing funds, is referred to as the cost of debt capital. Interest payments must be made to lenders regardless of business performance. In a low season or bad economy, a highly-leveraged company may have debt payments that exceed its revenue.

Debt Capital Scenarios

Let’s look at the loan scenario as an example. Assume a company takes out a $100,000 business loan from a bank that carries a 6% annual interest rate. If the loan is repaid one year later, the total amount repaid is $100,000 x 1.06, or $106,000. Of course, most loans are not repaid so quickly, so the actual amount of compounded interest on such a large loan can add up quickly. Now let’s take a look at an example of bonds as debt capital. Company A is an airline company that wants to finance a series of purchases for some new aircraft. Instead of going to the banks for a loan, the company may decide to issue debt in the form of bonds that mature within ten years. Investors can purchase these bonds in exchange for interest payments. Lenders are guaranteed payment on outstanding debts even in the absence of adequate revenue.

Equity Capital

Equity capital, on the other hand, is generated not by borrowing, but by selling shares of company stock. If taking on more debt is not financially viable, a company can raise capital by selling additional shares. These can be either common shares or preferred shares. Common stock gives shareholders voting rights, but doesn’t really give them much else in terms of importance. They are at the bottom of the ladder, meaning their ownership isn’t prioritized as other shareholders are. If the company goes under or liquidates, other creditors and shareholders are paid first. Preferred shares are unique in that payment of a specified dividend is guaranteed before any such payments are made on common shares. In exchange, preferred shareholders have limited ownership rights and have no voting rights.

The primary benefit of raising equity capital is that, unlike debt capital, the company is not required to repay shareholder investment. Instead, the cost of equity capital refers to the amount of return on investment shareholders expect based on the performance of the larger market. These returns come from the payment of dividends and stock valuation. The disadvantage to equity capital is that each shareholder owns a small piece of the company, so ownership becomes diluted. Business owners are also beholden to their shareholders and must ensure the company remains profitable to maintain an elevated stock valuation while continuing to pay any expected dividends. Debt-holders are generally known as lenders, while equity holders are known as investors. Because preferred shareholders have a higher claim on company assets, the risk to preferred shareholders is lower than to common shareholders, who occupy the bottom of the payment food chain. Therefore, the cost of capital for the sale of preferred shares is lower than for the sale of common shares. In comparison, both types of equity capital are typically more costly than debt capital, since lenders are always guaranteed payment by law.

Equity Capital Scenario

As mentioned above, some companies choose not to borrow more money to raise their capital. Perhaps they’re already leveraged and just can’t take on any more debt. They may turn to the market to raise some cash. A start-up company may raise capital through angel investors and venture capitalists. Private companies, on the other hand, may decide to go public by issuing an initial public offering (IPO). This is done by issuing stock on the primary market—usually to institutional investors—after which shares are traded on the secondary market by investors.

Private placements can be done by either private companies wishing to acquire a few select investors or by publicly traded companies as a secondary stock offering.

When a publicly-traded company issues a private placement, existing shareholders often sustain at least a short-term loss from the resulting dilution of their shares. However, stockholders may see long-term gains if the company can effectively invest the extra capital obtained and ultimately increase its revenues and profitability.

Private Placement Attorney Free Consultation

When you need legal help with PPM in Utah, please call Ascent Law LLC for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

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What Is A Private Placement Of Stocks?

Private Placement Attorney

There are many different ways to raise money for your small business.

What are Private Stock Offerings and How Can They Help You Finance Your Small Business?

You can get loans from your friends and family, liquidate your savings, ask for donations online, or even throw a local fundraiser. But one the most powerful way to finance your small business is a private stock offering. A private stock offering—sometimes called a private placement—is when you sell securities in your business without an initial public offering—usually called an IPO. In other words, a private placement is when you sell your company’s stocks or bonds to private investors. For example, if you run a start-up shopping site, you might offer private stocks to a private investor. This investor gives you money to fund your burgeoning start-up in hopes that he or she will see a large financial return on their investment. There are numerous ways to find investors that might want to purchase securities in a private stock offering. Bankers, small business attorneys, and your personal business contacts are a good place to start. But it’s important to remember that not everyone qualifies as a private investor. While private offerings are governed by less strict rules than IPOs, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) still has guidelines your business will need to follow. (Do note that you will not need to file anything with the SEC, however. In other words, a private placement allows you to get funding for your business without dealing directly with the SEC.)

Who can invest in a private stock offering?

Private placements must come from what the SEC terms an “accredited investor.” Our article, “What are Accredited Investors and How Can They Help Finance Your Small Business?” lays out a fuller picture, but know for starters that accredited investors are generally wealthy individuals or organizations. For example, for a single person to be classified as an accredited investor, they must have a net worth of $1 million or a yearly income of $200,000. Trusts, banks, investment and insurance companies also qualify.

What documents you should have to hold a private stock offering?

• Operating Agreement: First and foremost, you need to make sure your company is incorporated and that you have an Operating Agreement. Legal status and a plan that shows how your business runs will be crucial in securing the sort of savvy investors your small business will want.

• Private Placement Memorandum: A Private Placement Memorandum outlines the terms and conditions upon which you are offering interests in your business. You can think of it as a brochure for your business, where you alert potential investors to the facts they’ll need to know about your company. You can set the amount of stocks you’re offering overall, the price for each, how many an investor can purchase, when that investor will receive stocks, and pertinent information about your company (such as its founders, age, projected profit, etc.).

• Subscription Agreement: A Subscription Agreement is just that: an agreement. When a private investor decides to purchase securities in your small business, a subscription agreement is the contract you use to put the investment in writing. It should note the price and amount of stocks being purchased, in addition to information about the company itself.

• Accredited Investor Questionnaire Form: An accredited investor questionnaire is used by companies and individuals to validate that they are in fact an accredited investor, as defined by the SEC. Making sure your investors are accredited investors can save you a lot of hassle down the road, when your business is growing even faster. Rocket Lawyer provides this form as part of our Subscription Agreement.

While it might sound like a lot of paperwork, it’s not as bad as it seems. You’re simply showing potential investors how great your company is (via a Private Placement Memorandum) while they prove that they’re legally allowed to invest (via an accredited investor questionnaire form). When you agree, you both sign a contract (the Subscription Agreement) and you receive the funding you need to push your small business to the next level. Private Placement.

What Is a Private Placement?

A private placement is a sale of stock shares or bonds to pre-selected investors and institutions rather than on the open market. It is an alternative to an initial public offering (IPO) for a company seeking to raise capital for expansion. Investors invited to participate in private placement programs include wealthy individual investors, banks and other financial institutions, mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds. One advantage of a private placement is its relatively few regulatory requirements.

Understanding Private Placement

There are minimal regulatory requirements and standards for a private placement even though, like an IPO, it involves the sale of securities. The sale does not even have to be registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The company is not required to provide a prospectus to potential investors and detailed financial information may not be disclosed. The sale of stock on the public exchanges is regulated by the Securities Act of 1933, which was enacted after the market crash of 1929 to ensure that investors receive sufficient disclosure when they purchase securities. Regulation D of that act provides a registration exemption for private placement offerings. The same regulation allows an issuer to sell securities to a pre-selected group of investors that meet specified requirements. Instead of a prospectus, private placements are sold using a private placement memorandum (PPM) and cannot be broadly marketed to the general public. It specifies that only accredited investors may participate. These may include individuals or entities such as venture capital firms that qualify under the SEC’s terms.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Placement

Private placements have become a common way for startups to raise financing, particularly those in the internet and financial technology sectors. They allow these companies to grow and develop while avoiding the full glare of public scrutiny that accompanies an IPO. Buyers of private placements demand higher returns than they can get on the open markets.

A Speedier Process

Above all, a young company can remain a private entity, avoiding the many regulations and annual disclosure requirements that follow an IPO. The light regulation of private placements allows the company to avoid the time and expense of registering with the SEC. That means the process of underwriting is faster, and the company gets its funding sooner. If the issuer is selling a bond, it also avoids the time and expense of obtaining a credit rating from a bond agency. A private placement allows the issuer to sell a more complex security to accredited investors who understand the potential risks and rewards.

A More Demanding Buyer

The buyer of a private placement bond issue expects a higher rate of interest than can be earned on a publicly-traded security. Because of the additional risk of not obtaining a credit rating, a private placement buyer may not buy a bond unless it is secured by specific collateral. A private placement stock investor may also demand a higher percentage of ownership in the business or a fixed dividend payment per share of stock.

What is a Stock?

Stock (also capital stock) of a corporation, is all of the shares into which ownership of the corporation is divided. In American English, the shares are collectively known as “stock”. A single share of the stock represents fractional ownership of the corporation in proportion to the total number of shares. This typically entitles the stockholder to that fraction of the company’s earnings, proceeds from liquidation of assets (after discharge of all senior claims such as secured and unsecured debt), or voting power, often dividing these up in proportion to the amount of money each stockholder has invested. Not all stock is necessarily equal, as certain classes of stock may be issued for example without voting rights, with enhanced voting rights, or with a certain priority to receive profits or liquidation proceeds before or after other classes of shareholders. Stock can be bought and sold privately or on stock exchanges, and such transactions are typically heavily regulated by governments to prevent fraud, protect investors, and benefit the larger economy. The stocks are deposited with the depositories in the electronic format also known as Demat account. As new shares are issued by a company, the ownership and rights of existing shareholders are diluted in return for cash to sustain or grow the business. Companies can also buy back stock, which often lets investors recoup the initial investment plus capital gains from subsequent rises in stock price. Stock options, issued by many companies as part of employee compensation, do not represent ownership, but represent the right to buy ownership at a future time at a specified price. This would represent a windfall to the employees if the option is exercised when the market price is higher than the promised price, since if they immediately sold the stock they would keep the difference (minus taxes).

Shares vs. Stocks: What’s the Difference?

The distinction between stocks and shares is pretty blurred in the financial markets. Generally, in American English, both words are used interchangeably to refer to financial equities, specifically, securities that denote ownership in a public company (in the good old days of paper transactions, these were called stock certificates). Nowadays, the difference between the two words has more to do with syntax and is derived from the context in which they are used. Of the two, “stocks” is the more general, generic term. It is often used to describe a slice of ownership of one or more companies. In contrast, in common parlance, “shares” has a more specific meaning: It often refers to the ownership of a particular company.
What’s The Difference Between Shares and Stocks?

Stocks

Let’s confine ourselves to equities and the equity markets. Investment professionals often use the word stocks as synonymous with companies—publicly-traded companies, of course. They might refer to energy stocks, value stocks, large- or small-cap stocks, food-sector stocks, blue-chip stocks, and so on. In each case, these categories don’t refer so much to the stocks themselves as to the corporations that issued them. Financial pros also refer to common stock and preferred stock, but, actually, these aren’t types of stock but types of shares.

Shares

A share is the single smallest denomination of a company’s stock. So if you’re divvying up stock and referring to specific characteristics, the proper word to use is shares. Technically speaking, shares represent units of stock. Common and preferred refer to different classes of stock. They carry different rights and privileges, and trade at different prices. Common shareholders are allowed to vote on company referenda and personnel, for example. Preferred shareholders do not possess voting rights, but on the other hand, they have priority in getting repaid if the company goes bankrupt. Both types of shares pay dividends, but those in the preferred class are guaranteed. Common and preferred are the two main forms of stock shares; however, it’s also possible for companies to customize different classes of stock to fit the needs of their investors. The different classes of shares, often designated simply as “A,” “B,” and so on, are given different voting rights. For example, one class of shares would be held by a select group who are given perhaps five votes per share, while a second class would be issued to the majority of investors who are given just one vote per share.

Special Considerations

The interchangeability of the terms stocks and shares applies mainly to American English. The two words still carry considerable distinctions in other languages. In India, for example, as per that country’s Companies Act of 2013, a share is the smallest unit into which the company’s capital is divided, representing the ownership of the shareholders in the company, and can be only partially paid up. A stock, on the other hand, is a collection of shares of a member, converted into a single fund, that is fully paid up.

Free Initial Consultation with Lawyer

It’s not a matter of if, it’s a matter of when. Legal problems come to everyone. Whether it’s your son who gets in a car wreck, your uncle who loses his job and needs to file for bankruptcy, your sister’s brother who’s getting divorced, or a grandparent that passes away without a will -all of us have legal issues and questions that arise. So when you have a law question, call Ascent Law for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you!

Michael R. Anderson, JD

Ascent Law LLC
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States

Telephone: (801) 676-5506

Ascent Law LLC

4.9 stars – based on 67 reviews


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