Utah Code 57-1-4
Utah Real Estate Code 57-1-4: Attempted Conveyance Of More Than Grantor Owns — Effect.
A conveyance made by an owner of an estate for life or years, purporting to convey a greater estate than he could lawfully transfer, does not work a forfeiture of his estate, but passes to the grantee all the estate which the grantor could lawfully transfer.
In legal terms, conveyance refers to transferring the title of real property from one person to another. A conveyance occurs when the owner of real estate transfers the ownership of that property to another party. This could be a home, or some other property such as commercial real estate. A conveyance can occur in full, or the owner may choose to transfer only a portion of the ownership interest.
Conveyances may occur in many different ways, including but not limited to:
• Through a sale of the land or property;
• Through transfer as a gift; or
• By inheritance, such as through succession laws.
In general, statute of frauds laws require that any type of real estate sale is to be recorded in a written contract. Thus, a conveyance of title to real estate must be in writing if it involves a sale. This is to help avoid any disputes or breaches of contract in the future, as well as to establish the legal owner of the property for other purposes, such as taxes. The owner of the property, or the “grantor,” must utilize words of conveyance in order to transfer an interest in property to the person receiving the property, or the “grantee.” Words of conveyance show the intent to transfer the title of a parcel of real property and are typically required by law, although the exact words required may vary by jurisdiction. Transfer of the actual, physical deed does not need to happen, so long as the person clearly expresses their intention to make the conveyance. The deed itself must be written, signed, dated, and should contain a description of the land being transferred. Additionally, in order for a valid conveyance to occur, there should be no title defects, such as an improperly recorded title. In general, there are four main types of real property conveyances. Variations do occur within the four main types of conveyances. However, courts will not typically recognize the transfer if the language of the conveyance does not fit within one of the four main categories.
• Fee Tail: Fee tails are intended to preserve the estate in the bloodline of the person receiving the property. Thus, only the children of a fee tail holder will benefit from the fee tail. Once the holder of a fee tail dies without leaving behind any children, both the bloodline and the fee tail end, and the property returns to the original grantor. Fee tails are a type of conveyance that transfers an interest in real property to another, but restricts any further sale or transfer of the property. Fee tails are also referred to as restraint on alienation, and are abolished in nearly every state.
• Fee Simple Absolute: A fee simple absolute is a conveyance of real property that gives absolute ownership in the property. The holder of a fee simple has both the present and future interest in the property. The duration is indefinite, and the interest is not subject to any specific conditions. At any time, the holder may sell all or part of the property, or distribute the property at their death through a will. These rights are commonly thought of as simply ownership of the real property, and is the most broad category of property interest;
• Life Estate: Life estate refers to an interest in property that is measured by the duration of someone’s life, typically the person who is to receive the property. Once the life tenant dies, the property is transferred to the person who holds future interest. A life tenant is generally entitled to all uses and profits from the property; however, the life tenant does not maintain any rights to transfer the property when they die. As such, they do not have the right to commit waste (acting in any way that would cause the property to lose value, neglecting the premises, etc); and
• Fee Simple Defeasible: A fee simple defeasible conveyance may have certain conditions or limitations placed on the transfer of property. If these conditions are violated, or are not met, the property either goes back to the original grantor, or a specified third party. There are three different types of fee simple defeasible:
Fee Simple Determinable: The interest in the property is automatically ended when a condition is violated or unmet;
Fee Simple Subject to Condition Subsequent: Transfer where the violation of the condition would give the original owner of the property the option to take back the property; and
Fee Simple Subject to Executory Limitation: This conveyance confers a future property interest to a third party, not the original owner.
Conveyances of property may be disputed. Disputes over real property and the conveyance of real property occur frequently, especially when the grantor fails to provide clear and legal words of conveyance. Some examples of common conveyance disputes include:
Attempts to convey property that the grantor does not actually, legally own;
Will or trust disputes;
Issues with defective or improperly recorded titles, as previously mentioned; or
Conveyances based on fraud or deceit.
If a conveyance, or failure to convey, results in a measurable loss, legal action may be taken. Examples of remedies include damages awards and court injunction, such as an order that requires the defendant to transfer the title to the property’s buyer.
Things To Know About Conveyance Deed And Why It Is Important
In the wake of the rising number of instances of fraud and bogus selling of properties, it’s the conveyance deed or the sale deed that gives legal protection to the ownership of your property. By understanding the basics of a conveyance deed, you can guard yourself against getting duped.
There is a little difference between the sale deed and the conveyance deed. All sale deeds are conveyance deeds but not vice-versa. Gift, mortgage, exchange and lease deeds are also types of conveyance deed.
Governed under the Registration Act, a conveyance deed is an important document for a buyer as well as the seller because a purchase is not legally complete until it is signed by both the parties.
A conveyance deed is made on a non-judicial stamp paper keeping the agreement to sell as the blueprint.
The document has all the details needed to carry out for the transfer of the property title. This includes the full names of the buyer and the seller, their addresses, etc. The actual demarcation of the property in question, chain of the title of the owners, and the method of the delivery of the property are also stated.
In the deed, the seller is also required to certify that the property is free from any legal encumbrance.
If some loan is taken against the property, the mortgage should be cleared before proceeding, if it’s a sale deed. It’s always better to personally check with the local sub-registrar’s office.
In case of sale deed, it would also mention the money received towards the sale transaction.
The document would also state the exact date on which the property would be physically handed over to the new owner.
Within a period of four months of the execution of the deed, all the original documents related to the sale of the property should be produced before the registrar for registration.
The conveyance deed is also required to be signed by at least two witnesses with all their details included.
After the conveyance deed is signed, it has to be registered at the local sub-registrar’s office by paying the registration fee.
Although states vary in indicators of fraud which are recognized the following factors, among others, may be used to infer fraudulent conveyance:
An inadequate or fictitious consideration or a false recital as to consideration;
The fact that property is transferred by a debtor in anticipation of or during a pending suit;
Transactions which are not in the usual course or method of doing business;
The giving of an absolute conveyance which is intended only as security;
The failure to record the conveyance or an unusual delay in recording the payment;
Secrecy and haste are ordinarily regarded as badges of fraud but are not in themselves conclusive of fraud;
Insolvency or substantial indebtedness of the grantor;
The transfer of all the Debtor’s property, especially when she is insolvent or greatly financially embarrassed;
An excessive effort to clothe a transition with the appearance of fairness;
The failure of parties charged with fraudulent conveyance to produce available evidence or to testify with sufficient preciseness as to the pertinent details, at least in cases where the circumstances under which the fraud, transfer took place are suspicious;
The unexplained retention of possession of property transferred by Grantor after conveyance;
The buyer’s employment of the seller to manage the business as before, selling the goods which were the subject of the transfer;
The failure to examine or to take an inventory of the goods bought or the presence of looseness or incorrectness in determining the value of property;
The reservations of a trust for the benefit of the grantor and the property conveyed;
The existence of a blood or other close relationship between the parties to the transfer.
Conveyance Deed mean
One should first understand the meaning of ‘Deed’. It is a written document that is sealed and signed by all parties involved in property transaction (buyer and seller). It is a contractual document that includes legally valid terms, and is enforceable in a court of law. It is mandatory that a deed should be in writing. When each party agrees and all the liabilities has been fulfilled as per the agreement of sale of any property, a final document is signed by the seller in favor of the purchaser. This documents that all rights of seller over a property henceforth has been transferred to the purchaser. This is the deed of conveyance.
“Conveyance Deed records the transfer of interest in immovable property. The conveyance in the immovable property may take place by way of sale deed, gift deed, exchange deed etc,”
What is the difference between sales and Conveyance Deed?
It has also been observed that buyers are usually confused about the two terminologies sales deed and Conveyance Deed.
A Sale Deed acts as the main legal document for evidencing sale and transfer of ownership of property in favors of the buyer, from the seller. Further, it also acts as the main document for further sale by the buyer as it establishes his proof of ownership of the property. The Sale Deed is executed subsequent to the execution of the sale agreement, and after compliance of various terms and conditions detailed in the sale agreement as agreed upon between the buyer and the seller. The Sale Deed is the main document by which a seller transfers his right on the property to the purchaser, who then acquires absolute ownership of the property.
“Conveyance and Sale Deed essentially have no difference as in both the documents, the right, interest and title of the previous owner is transferred to the purchaser. Conveyance Deed includes Sale Deed i.e. Sale Deed is one of the mode of conveyance i.e. transfer of interest. All deeds transferring the property-rights are Conveyance Deeds. Sale Deed is one of them,” But what is to be taken into the account that all Sale Deeds are deeds of conveyance but all Conveyance Deeds are not sale deeds. So, Conveyance Deed is a broader concept including the Sale Deed in it. On signing a Conveyance Deed, the original owner transfers all legal rights on the property to the buyer, against a certain consideration which is usually money. However, this consideration is non-significant in the case of Gift Deeds, as they are based on familial bonds.
Conveyance Deed is required to contain the following:
Complete identification and demarcation of the boundaries of the property
Information of all the parties who are involved, such as name, age addresses and signature of both the parties involved – buyer and seller
Mention of any other rights (if applicable) annexed to the property and its use
The chain of title, that is, all legal rights to the present seller
The method of delivery of the given property to the buyer
The sale agreement, which is the main requirement of the drafting of the valid sale deed and both the parties, must mutually settle the terms and conditions of the agreement. A sale deed always precedes agreement to sell
The sale consideration clause, which is the memo of the consideration, stating how it has been received
Any other terms and conditions that are applicable as far as the transfer of ownership rights are concerned
The Conveyance Deed procedure
The Conveyance (or sale) Deed is required to be executed on non-judicial stamp paper. Once that is done it needs to be registered by presenting it at the Registrar’s office, and remittance of the registration fee. After the registration is done, the transfer of the property moves into the public domain. Stamp Duty and Registration Fees is obtained by the government as revenue. When this happens, the process of Conveyance Deed is officially over. If the builder is not alive, it can be done by the legal heirs/representative of the builder. You need to draft a Conveyance Deed and apply before registration. Engage any local counsel who is dealing in these matters.
Should I Hire an Attorney for Help with Conveyance Issues?
A skilled and knowledgeable estate attorney may prove to be an invaluable asset when conveying property to another person. An experienced estate attorney will be knowledgeable about your state’s specific property laws, and will be able to assist you in drafting any necessary real estate contracts. Additionally, they will be able to represent you in court, should any disputes arise.
Real Estate Attorney
When you need real estate legal help, call the Real Estate Attorneys at Ascent Law LLC for your free consultation (801) 676-5506. We want to help you.
8833 S. Redwood Road, Suite C
West Jordan, Utah
84088 United States
Telephone: (801) 676-5506